The EU and the Emerging Countries - EU and Moldova and Ukraine
Rapporteur Antonio Parziale (2012)


These two countries, which are part of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), are placed in a context of a strengthened partnership and a potential accession to the EU.

Ukraine: In December 2004, President Yushchenko proposed a program in several points to lead Ukraine to join the EU. However, it ended in failure. In 2010, the pro-Russian candidate Viktor Yanukovych won the election and the country is experiencing a political crisis. Yanukovych continues to make accession to the EU one of its strategic goals but his administration fails to implement the necessary reforms to meet the criteria for membership.
Regarding the Ukrainian population, it is divided between a pro-European and Westernized and a fringe which rather moves toward Russia. According to surveys conducted in 2011, 45% of Ukrainians would support membership in the EU.

Moldova: Moldova is a predominantly rural country, which imports most of its natural gas from Russia. On 25 September 2009, a pro-European government, the Alliance for European Integration, is formed. In January 2010, European integration was confirmed as the government main priority. It then launched a reform program for 2011-2014, which aims to create the right conditions for membership policy and economic integration. The government also intends to sign Association Agreement within the framework of the Eastern Partnership of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). As for the population, Moldovans are 70% in favor of the integration of their countries into the EU.

The EU and emerging countries: two types of agreements for the neighboring countries of the EU:
  • stabilization and association agreements;
  • participation in the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which is the case for Ukraine and Moldova.
The ENP was born in 2004 and seeks to establish political and economic relations with neighboring depth, creating a zone of stability in the vicinity of the EU and to reduce threats to the security of the EU in fighting jointly against threats could come from the neighborhood (organized crime, illegal migration, unstable energy supply…). This policy is based on differentiated action plans for each partner state which set out a series of priorities in the political and economic reforms to be undertaken.
The ENP gradually increased in the East with the Eastern Partnership in 2009 which aims to increase economic and social integration and multilateral cooperation. The partnership includes establishing free trade zones thorough and comprehensive agreements and visa liberalization. It addresses six countries (Moldova, Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus). On 25 May 2011, the ENP develops a new approach to reform: the "more for more": ie more than one partner country progresses on the path of reform and it will receive support from the EU. This enables the most advanced countries to move faster. ENP calls for a strengthened partnership but is not located in a perspective of accession, so it is to see the results of this policy towards both countries in the long term.
  • Out of Schengen. Perspective of post Soviet world, Wroclaw, 20 April 2012
  • The European Union and the Emerging Countries: Moldova and Ukraine, Bratislava, 25 November 2011